A Systematic Literature Review of Islamophobia on Media: Trends, Factors, and Stereotypes

Yudi Wili Tama, Siti Drivoka Sulistyaningrum


Islamophobia is a concept that includes various types of discrimination against Muslims and their followers.This study explores trends in previous research on Islamophobia between 2013 and 2022, focusing on factors that contribute to Islamophobia in the media and prevalent stereotypes. A systematic literature review was conducted, involving the identification, evaluation, interpretation and analysis of relevant studies. The study found that Islamophobia in the media has gained significant attention and requires further investigation to understand current trends and develop solutions. Factors associated with Islamophobia include negative portrayal, structural bias, and a lack of understanding of Islam, which contributes to anti-Muslim sentiment. The study also identified stereotypes, such as Muslims being suspected of attacks, seen as a societal threat, labeled as "other," and women wearing headscarves being stigmatized as religious fanatics. Addressing Islamophobia in the media is crucial, and recognizing these contributing factors and stereotypes can help challenge biases and promote inclusivity in society


Literature Review; Islamophobia; Media; Steretotypes.

Full Text:



Abbasi, I. (2020). South Africa’s Weekly Media: Front-Page Reporting 9/11, Preventing Islamophobia. Journal for the Study of Religion. https://doi.org/10.17159/2413-3027/2020/v33n2a2

Abdelhadi, E., & O’Brien, J. (2020). Perceived Group Deprivation and Intergroup Solidarity: Muslims’ Attitudes towards Other Minorities in the United States. Religions.

Anderson, Shahbazi, & Abid. (2021). The Islamophobia Index: Exploring the Challenges in Establishing Reliability for a Content Analysis Instrument Evaluating Islamophobia in Media Texts. Islamophobia Studies Journal. https://doi.org/10.13169/islastudj.6.2.0182

Awan, I., & Awan, I. (2014). Islamophobia and Twitter: A Typology of Online Hate Against Muslims on Social Media. Policy & Internet. https://doi.org/10.1002/1944-2866.poi364

Awan, I., & Zempi, I. (2016). The affinity between online and offline anti-muslim hate crime: dynamics and impacts. Aggression and Violent Behavior. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.avb.2016.02.001

Azeez, A. H. (2019). Brides vs fighters in the media lens: Orientalism, Islamophobia and gender in media discourse on international recruits to ISIS. Journal of Arab & Muslim Media Research. https://doi.org/10.1386/jammr.12.1.115_1

Baharuddin, A. F., & Baharuddin, A. Z. (2022). Islamophobia, Indian Media, and Covid-19 Pandemic: A Critical Discourse Analysis. Islam Realitas: Journal of Islamic & Social Studies. https://doi.org/10.30983/islam_realitas.v8i1.5352

Barn, B. S., Raimondi, F., Athappian, L., & Clark, T. (2014). Slrtool: A Tool to Support Collaborative Systematic Literature Reviews. International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems.

Boulahnane, S., & Boulahnane, S. (2019). Homophobia And ‘Un-Americanness’ As Rising Facets Of Islamophobia: An Analysis Of Orlando Shooting Media Transcripts. Journal of Al-Tamaddun. https://doi.org/10.22452/jat.vol14no2.11

Cervi, L., Tejedor, S., & Gracia, M. (2021). What Kind of Islamophobia? Representation of Muslims and Islam in Italian and Spanish Media. Religion. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel12060427

Chaudhary, M. U., Ghani, A., & Naseer, H. (2021). Islamophobia In Western Media: A Study Of American Movies After 9/11. Journal of Parallel and Distributed Computing. https://doi.org/10.36968/jpdc-v05-i01-13

Dauda, K. O. (2021). Islamophobia and religious intolerance: Threats to global peace and harmonious co-existence. Qudus International Journal of Islamic Studies, 8(2), 257–292. https://doi.org/10.21043/qijis.v8i2.6811

Deroo, M. (2021). Seeking truth about Muslims: Critical media literacies in an era of islamophobia. The Journal of Media Literacy Education. https://doi.org/10.23860/jmle-2021-13-3-4

Eckert, S., Metzger-Riftkin, J., Kolhoff, S., & O’Shay-Wallace, S. (2019). A hyper differential counterpublic: Muslim social media users and Islamophobia during the 2016 US presidential election. New Media & Society, 23(1), 78–98. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444819892283

Elsayeh, M. (2021). Investigating the Role of Translation in the Construction of the Public Narrative of Islamophobia in American Far-Right Media. https://doi.org/10.21608/tjhss.2021.54714.1016

Evolvi, G. (2018). Hate in a Tweet: Exploring Internet-Based Islamophobic Discourses. Religions.

Flew, T. (2017). The ‘Theory’ in Media Theory: The ‘Media-Centrism’ Debate. Mass Communication EJournal.

Furlanetto, E., Furlanetto, E., & Mehring, F. (2020). Media Agoras. Islamophobia and Inter/Multimedial Dissensus. Introduction. European Journal of American Studies. https://doi.org/10.4000/ejas.16141

Güz, N., Bingöl, M., & Yanik, H. (2020). İslamofobi ve medya: “The Stone Merchant” film afişinin göstergebilimsel analizi. International Journal of Social Sciences and Education Research. https://doi.org/10.24289/ijsser.674355

Hanson-Abromeit, D., & Sena Moore, K. (2014). The systematic review as a research process in music therapy. Journal of Music Therapy, 51(1), 4–38. https://doi.org/10.1093/jmt/thu002

Hassan, I., & Azmi, M. N. L. (2021). Islamophobia in non-Western media: A content analysis of selected online newspapers. Newspaper Research Journal, 42, 29–47.

Heeren, J., & Zick, A. (2014). Misleading Images: Results from Interviews with Media Producers, Journalists and Consumers on Muslims and Islam in German Media. Middle East Journal of Culture and Communication, 7, 46–63.

Hoewe, J., & Bowe, B. J. (2018). Magic words or talking point? The framing of ‘radical Islam’ in news coverage and its effects. Journalism, 22, 1012–1030.

Irawan, B., & Nasution, I. F. A. (2021). The Political Dynamics of Islamophobia in Jokowi’s Era: A Discourse Analysis of Online Media Reporting. Studia Islamika. https://doi.org/10.36712/sdi.v28i3.17589

Kurebwa, J., & Muchakabarwa, P. (2019). Media Images of Islamophobia on Cable News Network (CNN) and Implications for International Relations. Int. J. Cyber Warf. Terror., 9, 31–47.

Lajevardi, N. (2020). The Media Matters: Muslim American Portrayals and the Effects on Mass Attitudes. The Journal of Politics, 83, 1060–1079.

Luqiu, L. R., & Yang, F. (2018). Islamophobia in China: news coverage, stereotypes, and Chinese Muslims’ perceptions of themselves and Islam. Asian Journal of Communication, 28(6), 598–619. https://doi.org/10.1080/01292986.2018.1457063

Mahalingappa, L. (2019). Resisting Islamophobia: Fostering Muslim English Learners’ Agency Through Critical Language Awareness and Critical Media Literacy. Proceedings of the 2019 AERA Annual Meeting. https://doi.org/10.3102/1441882

Mansoor, M., Zainab, S., & Gul, U. (2022). Islamophobia In The Western Media: Geert Wilder’s Mohammad Cartoon Controversy In Holland’s Hate Speech Provisions. Pakistan Journal of Social Research. https://doi.org/10.52567/pjsr.v4i1.952

Margiati, T., & Qodarsasi, U. (2022). Cyber-Terrorism of ISIS and The Challenge Towards Global Security. Politea, 5(2), 224. https://doi.org/10.21043/politea.v5i2.17369

Martin, N. (2017). Journalism, the pressures of verification and notions of post-truth in civil society. Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 9, 41–56.

Moore-Berg, S. L., Hameiri, B., Falk, E., & Bruneau, E. (2022). Reducing Islamophobia: An assessment of psychological mechanisms that underlie anti-Islamophobia media interventions. Group Processes & Intergroup Relations, 26(3), 555–578. https://doi.org/10.1177/13684302221085832

Najib, K., & Hopkins, C. T. (2020). Geographies of Islamophobia. Social & Cultural Geography, 21, 449–457.

Nickerson, C. (2019). Media portrayal of terrorism and Muslims: a content analysis of Turkey and France. Crime, Law and Social Change, 72(5), 547–567. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10611-019-09837-6

Nurhalizah, M. E., Maghfiroh, S. L., Rohma, S., & Syakirin, J. (2021). Optimization of Social Media as a Counter to Islamophobia in Australia. Kanal: Jurnal Ilmu Komunikasi. https://doi.org/10.21070/kanal.v9i2.1196

Parhan, M., Islamy, M. R. F., Budiyanti, N., Budiyanti, N., Nugraha, R. H., Hyangsewu, P., & Hyangsewu, P. (2020). Responding to Islamophobia by Internalizing the Value of Islam Rahmatan lil Alamin through Using the Media. Islam Realitas: Journal of Islamic & Social Studies. https://doi.org/10.30983/islam_realitas.v6i2.3695

Patil, T., McLaren, H., McLaren, H. J., & McLaren, H. J. (2019). Australian media and islamophobia: Representations of asylum seeker children. Religion. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel10090501

Patnaik, S. (2016). Islamophobia and the Ethics of Media: A Cross-Cultural Study. The Journal of Innovations, 11.

Pihlaja, S., & Thompson, N. (2017). “I love the Queen”: Positioning in young British Muslim discourse. Discourse, Context and Media, 20, 52–58.

Ragozina, S., & Ragozina, S. (2018). Protecting “Traditional Islam” from “Radical Islam”: Discourse of Islamophobia in the Russian Media. https://doi.org/10.22394/2073-7203-2018-36-2-272-299

Saleem, M., Yang, G. S., & Ramasubramanian, S. (2016). Reliance on Direct and Mediated Contact and Public Policies Supporting Outgroup Harm. Journal of Communication, 66, 604–624.

Samaie, M., & Malmir, B. (2017). US news media portrayal of Islam and Muslims: a corpus-assisted Critical Discourse Analysis. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 49(14), 1351–1366. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2017.1281789

Samari, G. (2016). Islamophobia and Public Health in the United States. American Journal of Public Health. https://doi.org/10.2105/ajph.2016.303374

Sayyid, S., & Sayyid, S. (2014). A Measure of Islamophobia. https://doi.org/10.13169/islastudj.2.1.0010

Senivongse, C., Bennet, A., & Mariano, S. (2017). Utilizing a systematic literature review to develop an integrated framework for information and knowledge management systems. Vine, 47(2), 250–264. https://doi.org/10.1108/VJIKMS-03-2017-0011

Shahrol, S. J. M., Sulaiman, S., Samingan, M. R., & Mohamed, H. (2020). A systematic literature review on teaching and learning english using mobile technology. International Journal of Information and Education Technology, 10(9), 709–714. https://doi.org/10.18178/ijiet.2020.10.9.1447

Sikander. (2021). Islamophobia in Indian Media. Islamophobia Studies Journal. https://doi.org/10.13169/islastudj.6.2.0120

Sohn, D., & Choi, S. (2019). Social embeddedness of persuasion: effects of cognitive social structures on information credibility assessment and sharing in social media. International Journal of Advertising, 38, 824–844.

Spier, T. E. (2022). Islamophobia, Ideology, and Discourse Analysis in Ecuadorian Social Media. Lenguaje. https://doi.org/10.25100/lenguaje.v50i2.11867

Stroup, D. R., & Stroup, D. R. (2021). Good Minzu and bad Muslims: Islamophobia in China’s state media. Nations and Nationalism. https://doi.org/10.1111/nana.12758

Sultana, M. (2022). Islamophobia in Context of Freedom of Speech: A Critical Analysis of Media Representation. مجله علوم اسلامیه ودینیه. https://doi.org/10.36476/jirs.7:1.06.2022.18

Suryandari, N., Suryandari, N., Suryandari, N., & Arifin, S. (2021). Islamophobia and Media Framing in West Media. Karsa: The Journal of Social and Islamic Culture. https://doi.org/10.19105/karsa.v29i1.3793

Sutton, H. (2017). FBI releases report on increased hate crimes. Campus Security Report, 13, 9.

Taufiqa, F., & Handayati, P. (2020). The effect of Islamophobia on Business Profits. KnE Social Sciences. https://doi.org/10.18502/kss.v4i9.7333

Terman, R. (2017). Islamophobia and Media Portrayals of Muslim Women: A Computational Text Analysis of US News Coverage. International Studies Quarterly. https://doi.org/10.1093/isq/sqx051

Uenal, F. (2016). Disentangling islamophobia: The differential effects of symbolic, realistic, and terroristic threat perceptions as mediators between social dominance orientation and islamophobia. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 4, 66–90.

Varol, F. B. (2022). Traces of Western Philosophy in the Media’s Islamophobia Discourse. Journal of Media and Religious Studies, 5(2), 367–385.

Witro, D., & Alamin, N. (2021). Grounding Islam Moderation Through Social Media: A Form To Prevent Islamophobia In Indonesia. Tatar Pasundan Jurnal Diklat Keagamaan. https://doi.org/10.38075/tp.v15i2.230

Yasin, S. (2021). Islamophobia and the media are the determinants of the Arab media’s coverage of the phenomenon in the social media era. ARID International Journal of Media Studies and Communication Sciences. https://doi.org/10.36772/arid.aijmscs.2021.244

Zheng, Y., & Almeida, M. de. (2021). Islamophobia in Western Media: A Case Study. Academia Letters. https://doi.org/10.20935/al3147

DOI: https://doi.org/10.36256/ijrs.v5i1.288


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2023 Indonesian Journal of Religion and Society

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

Indonesian Journal of Religion and Society (IJRS) Is Indexed By:




Creative Commons License
Indonesian Journal of Religion and Society (IJRS) is distribute under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

IJRS Visitor