Spatio And Temporal Dimensions For The Public Usage Of Urban Green Parks In Colombo, Sri Lanka

PGR Naleen Indika Pussella, Lin Li


Use and accessibility to green parks in urban environments by public is an indicator to measure the psychological and physiological sustainability of dwellers. Identifying the driving forces in selecting a park for leisure and discover the pattern of park usage in Colombo city, Sri Lanka were the main objectives of this study. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from three types of respondents: regular park users who use the nearest park from residence, regular park users who don’t use the nearest park to the residence and non regular park users. Initially, it was selected 2879 participants for this survey representing village administration of Colombo city limits and the questionnaire was returned by 2328 respondents. However, 12 forms were incomplete status, only 2311 responses were selected for further analysis. These respondents were selected randomly to represent each administrative division by considering the total population of them. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) application was to analyze the characteristics of park users. It was revealed that nearly a half of the respondents do not use parks regularly and identified a number of characteristics of respondents and reasons for usage and non-usage of green parks regularly. Education, employment, age, civil status and accommodation type were identified as driving forces for the use of parks by general public. Safety and environmental factors were identified as the main issues on selecting parks. Study recommends to policy makers to identify these demerits to take immediate actions to popularize parks among public as an urgent requirement in the urban development and planning processes.


Green Parks; Urban; Use and Accessibility.

Full Text:



Bao T, Li X, Zhang J, Zhang Y & Tian S. 2016. Assessing the Distribution of Urban Green Spaces and its Anisotropic Cooling Distance on Urban Heat Island Pattern in Baotou, China, International Journal of Geo Information. 5, 12;

Bogar S and Beyer KM. 2017. Green Space, Violence, and Crime: A Systematic Review, Trauma, Violence & Abuse, 1-12.

Byomkesh T, Nakagoshi N & Dewan AM. 2012. Urbanization and green space dynamics in Greater Dhaka, Bangladesh. - Landscape Ecological Engineering 8:45-58.

Cui L and Shi J. 2012. Urbanization and its environmental effects in Shanghai, China. Urban Climate. 2:1–15. doi: 10.1016/j.uclim.2012.10.008

Department of Census and Statistics of Sri Lanka. 2012. The report on mid-year population estimates by district & sex, 2012 – 2016. Department of Census & Statistics, Ministry of Policy Planning and Economic Affairs, Sri Lanka.

Department of Census and Statistics. 2016. The Report on Mid-year Population Estimates by District & Sex, 2012 – 2016. Department of Census & Statistics, Ministry of Policy Planning and Economic Affairs, Sri Lanka.

Dharmawan, V., Rachmaniyah, N. (2020). Spatial Behavior Pattern of Visitors in City Park Case Study: Flora and Bungkul Park. In: Proceedings of Indonesia 2019 3rd International Conference on Engineering and Applied Technology (ICEAT), 3-5 June 2020, Sorongi Indonesia, p.1-7

Fasihi, H. (2019). Urban Parks and Their Accessibility in Tehran. Iran, Environmental Justice, 12(6):242-249

George D and Mallery P. 2013. SPSS for Windows step by step: A simple guide and reference.13th ed. Boston: Alllyn & Bacon

Hemakumara GPTS. 2016. GIS based analysis to assess the benefits of green areas in the urban core (With special reference to the Vihara Maha Devi Park in Colombo), International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology, 05:09, 362 – 369.

Hosseini MI, Anjomshoa E & Abdollahi AA. 2015. Standardizing Green Space Capitation of Kerman City, Emphasizing on the Environment and Sustainable Development. - Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 6(5)S2:654-662.

Jagoon KA, Kaneko S, Fujikura R, Fujiwara A, Imai T, Matsumoto T et al. 2009. Urbanization and subsurface environmental issues: an attempt at DPSIR model application in Asian cities. Science of the Total Environment 407 (9), 3089–3104.

Jahani, A., Saffariha, M. (2020). Aesthetic Preference and Mental Restoration Prediction in Urban Parks: An Application of Environmental Modeling Approach. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, 54:1-14.

Jo, H.I., Jeon, J.Y. (2020). The Influence of Human Behavioral Characteristics on Soundscape Perception in Urban Parks: Subjective and Observational Approaches, Landscape and Urban Planning, 203:1-16

Jorgensen, A.; Hitchmough, J.; Calvert, T. Woodland spaces and edges: Their impact on perception of safety and preference. Landsc. Urban Plan. 2002, 60, 135–150.

Kaplan, R.; Kaplan, S.; Ryan, R. With People in Mind: Design And Management Of Everyday Nature; Island Press: Washinton, DC, USA, 1961

Kline P. 1994. An easy guide to factor analysis.London: Routledge, Vol. 4, No. 1 (2017), pp. 1-8,

Kong F and Nakagoshi N. 2006. Spatial-temporal gradient analysis of urban green spaces in Jinan, China, Landscape and Urban Planning 78 147–164,

Konijnendijk CC. 2003. A decade of urban forestry in Europe, Forest Policy and Economics 5:173–186

Kuang W, Liu J, Dong J, Chi W and Zhang C. 2016. The rapid and massive urban and industrial land expansions in China between 1990 and 2010: A CLUD-based analysis of their trajectories, patterns, and drivers, Landscape and Urban Planning 145:21–33,

Lam, K., Ng, S., Huı, W., Chan, P. (2005). Environmental Quality of Urban Parks and Open Spaces in Hong Kong, Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 11:55-73.

Larson LR, Jennings V, Cloutier SA (2016) Public Parks and Wellbeing in Urban Areas of the United States. PLoS ONE 11(4): e0153211.

Li L, Pussella PGRNI. 2017. Is Colombo City, Sri Lanka Secured For Urban Green Space Standards? Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 15(3):1789-1799.

Liu HL and Shen YS. 2014. The Impact of Green Space Changes on Air Pollution and Microclimates: A Case Study of the Taipei Metropolitan Area, Sustainability, 6, 8827-8855;

Liu, J., Liu, Q., Ma, J., Wu, H., Qu, Y., Gong, Y., Yang, S., An, Y., Zhou, Y. (2020). Heavy Metal(loid)s in the Topsoil of Urban Parks in Beijing, China: Concentrations, Potential Sources, and Risk Assessment. Environmental Pollution, 260:1-10

Ozturk Kurtaslan, B. (2017). Investigating the Successful Urban Park Planning and Management Approach on the Sample of Teardrop Park-New York. International Journal of Society Researches, 7(13):742-760

Rahmanov, O., Pukowiec-Kurda, K., Banaszek, J., Brom, K. (2019), Floristic Diversity in Selected City Parks in Southern Poland. Environmental Protection and Natural Resources, 30(4):8-17

Schipperijn J, et al. 2009. Factors influencing the use of green space: Results from a Danish national representative survey. Landscape and Urban Planning,

Taylor L., Hahs, A. K., and Hochuli, D. F. (2018). Wellbeing and urban living: nurtured by nature. Urban Ecosyst. 21, 197–208.

Taylor L, Leckey EH, Lead PJ and Hochuli DF (2020) What Visitors Want From Urban Parks: Diversity, Utility, Serendipity. Front. Environ. Sci. 8:595620.

Tavakol M, Dennick R. 2011. Making sense of Cronbach’s alpha. International journal of Medical Education, 2: 53–55.

Torabi, N., Lindsay, J., Smith, J., Khorb, L.A., Sainsbury, O. (2020). Widening the Lens: Understanding Urban Parks as a Network. Cities, 98:1-12

Tzoulas K, Korpela K, Venn S, Pelkonen VY, Kazmierczak A, Niemela J, James P. 2007. Promoting Ecosystem and Human Health in Urban Areas using Green Infrastructure: A Literature Review, Landscape and Urban Planning 81.167–178,

Van Vliet, E.; Dane, G. Weijs-Perrée, M.; van Leeuwen, E.; van Dinter, M.; van den Berg, P.;Borgers, A.; Chamilothori, K. The Influence of Urban Park Attributes on User Preferences: Evaluation of Virtual Parks in an Online Stated-Choice Experiment. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 212.

Wimmer R and Dominick J. 2011. Mass media research: An introduction. 9th ed. Belmont: Thomson Wadsworth.

Zhao J, Chen S, Jiang B, Ren Y, Wang H, Vause J& Yu H. 2013. Temporal trend of green space coverage in China and its relationship with urbanization over the last two decades, Science of the Total Environment 442 (2013) 455–465.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Copyright (c) 2022 Indonesian Journal of Tourism and Leisure

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

Indonesian Journal of Tourism and Leisure Indexed and Archieved By:




Creative Commons License
Indonesian Journal of Tourism and Leisure is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

IJTL Visitor